Edelbrock Performance Tech Discussion

Edelbrock Performance Tech Discussion
Optimizing your car's performance requires more than just throwing a bunch of parts under the hood. Understanding the relationship between various systems and the mathematical computations necessary to determine which parts will give you the performance you want is key to improved performance in today's factory-tuned cars. Use the info in this section to help you select the correct parts for your application. If you have any questions, give a call to our toll-free Factory Tech Line: 1-800-416-8628.
Power Package Levels MPH & RPM Displacement, VE & CFM Compression Ratio EFI System Formulas Pressure & Flow Flow Bench Converisons Fuel System Requirements CFM Rules E-Force Boost Measurement E-Force TMAP Information E-Force Throttle Body Information
 

POWER PACKAGE PERFORMANCE LEVELS (5)
  Performer Torker II Performer RPM / RPM Air-Gap Victor Jr. Super Victor +
Compression Ratio 8.5:1 9.5:1 9.5:1 12.5:1 12.5+:1
Cylinder Head Performer or Stock Performer RPM Performer RPM Victor Jr. CNC Victor
Camshaft Hydraulic Hydraulic Hydraulic Mechanical/Roller Mechanical/Roller
Intake (DU @ .050) 200° - 220° 220° - 230° 230° - 240° 250°+ 270°+
Exhaust (DU @ .050) 210° - 230° 230° - 240° 240° - 250° 260°+ 276°+
Valve Lift (small-block) 0.400" - 0.450" 0.450" - 0.500" 0.500" - 0.550" 0.600" - 0.650" 0.650"+
Operating Band (rpm) Idle - 5500 2500 - 6500 1500 - 6500 3500 - 7500 4500 - 8500+
Manifold Type 2 Plane, Low Rise 1 Plane, Low Rise 2 Plane, Hi-Rise 1 Plane, Hi-Rise 1 Plane, Hi-Rise
Volumetric Efficiency 75 - 90% 90 - 100% 95 - 105% 105 - 115% 110 - 122%
Peak Torque (rpm) 3800 4500 4500 5300 6300
Peak HP (rpm) 5200 6000 6000 7000 8000+
Pkg. Goal (hp/Cu. In.) 0.7 - 0.9 0.8 - 1.1 0.9 - 1.3 1.2 - 1.7 1.6 - 2.0
 

MILE PER HOUR AND REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE
First find the vehicle speed, MPH and the consequent engine RPM operating range:
FORMULA FOR MPH

MPH = TIRE RADIUS ÷ 168 x ENGINE RPM ÷ GEAR RATIO

Example: What MPH at 6500 RPM with a 4.9 rear axle and 14 inch radius tire in 4th (1:1) gear?
MPH = 14 ÷ 168 x 6500 ÷ 4.90 ÷ 1 = 111 MPH
Example: In 3rd gear (1.34)?
MPH = 14 ÷ 168 x 6500 ÷ 4.90 ÷ 1.34 = 83 MPH
Note: Tire Radius is distance, in inches, from center of wheel to the top of the tire.
Note: Gear Ratio is Rear Axle ratio divided by Transmission Gear ratio.
 
FORMULA FOR RPM

RPM = 168 x GEAR RATIO x MPH ÷ TIRE RADIUS

Example: Using the first example, what will be the RPM after shift from 3rd to 4th gear at 83 MPH?
RPM = 168 x 4.90 x 83 ÷ 14 = 4880 RPM
 
FORMULA FOR GEAR RATIO (GR)

GEAR RATIO = TIRE RADIUS x RPM ÷ 168 ÷ MPH

Example: Using the first example, what Gear Ratio is required for 120 MPH at 6500 RPM?
GR = 14 x 6500 ÷ 168 ÷ 120 = 4.51
 
FORMULA FOR TIRE RADIUS

TIRE RADIUS = 168 x MPH x GEAR RATIO ÷ RPM

Example: Using the first example, what tire radius for 110 MPH but at 6000 RPM with a 4.11 gear?
Tire Radius = 168 x 110 x 4.11 ÷ 6000
Tire Radius = 12.7 inches
Note: Approximately a 25" diameter tire. Remember that the tire radius will be less during hard acceleration than when the vehicle is standing still. Also, radius will be greater at high speed due to tire expansion from centrifugal force.
 

DISPLACEMENT, VOLUMETRIC (VE) EFFICIENCY, AND CFM
FORMULA FOR VOLUMETRIC (VE) EFFICIENCY

VE = (CFM X 3456) ÷ (CID X RPM)

If VE (volumetric efficiency) is less than 1 (or 100%) the amount and quality of charge in the cylinder is reduced so less torque is produced. VE above 100% is a supercharging effect and more torque is produced.
Power Level Stock Performer Torker II Perf. RPM Victor Jr. Super Victor +
Peak VE% 60-80 75-90 90-100 95-105 105-115 110-122
 
FORMULA FOR CID (cubic inch displacement)

CID = NUMBER OF CYLINDERS x SWEPT VOLUME

Note: CID = N x 0.7854 x bore x bore x stroke (all in inches)
Example: What is CID of a V8 with a “30 over”, 4 inch bore and 3.48 inch stroke?
CID = 8 x 0.7854 x 4.030 x 4.030 x 3.48
CID = 355 cu. inches
 
FORMULA FOR CFM

CFM = CUBIC FEET PER MINUTE

A measure of air flow into and out of an engine (CFM = CID x RPM x VE ÷ 3456).
Example: What CFM is consumed by a 355 CID engine at 4500 RPM if VE = 105% (1.05)?
CFM = 355 x 4500 x 1.05 ÷ 3456
CFM = 485
Example: What CFM by the same engine at 6400 RPM if VE has fallen to 95% (0.9)?
CFM = 355 x 6400 x 0.95 ÷ 3456

CFM = 625
 
TO CONVERT C.I.D. TO CC'S

C.I.D. = CC ÷ 16.39

Example: What is the cubic-inch displacement of a 5000 cc engine?
C.I.D. = 5000 ÷ 16.39
C.I.D. = 305
 
TO CONVERT CC'S TO C.I.D.

CC = C.I.D. X 16.39

Note: cc = cubic centimeter, 1,000 cc = 1 liter
Example: What are the cc’s of a 350 C.I.D. engine?
cc’s = 350 x 16.39
cc’s = 5736.5

Please Note: The above equations and rules apply only to four-cycle engines. The equations have been simplified for ease of understanding. Answers will be approximate but generally will be close enough for use as a guideline.

 

COMPRESSION RATIO
FORMULA FOR COMPRESSION RATIO (CR)

CR = CYL. VOLUME @ BDC ÷ CYLINDER VOLUME @ TDC

CV = CLEARANCE VOLUME
CR = (CV + SWEPT VOLUME) ÷ CV
CR = 1+ SWEPT VOLUME ÷ CV
CR = 1+ (SWEPT VOLUME ÷ VOL @ TDC)
CR = 1+ (0.7854 x BORE x BORE x STROKE) ÷ (CCV + HGV + PDV)
CCV = Combustion Chamber Volume, in cubic inches
Note: if volume is given in cc’s then ÷ 16.4 to get cubic inches.
HGV = Head Gasket Volume, in cubic inches,
HGV = Head gasket compressed thickness x 0.7854 x bore x bore
PDV = (Piston Deck Volume) + (Piston Dome Effective Volume)
PDV = (0.7854 x bore x bore x deck to piston distance) +
(volume of piston depressions - volume of piston bumps)
CV = CCV + HCV + PDV
Example: What is CR of the engine in #9 if heads have 72 cc chamber, head gasket is compressed to 0.040 inch and flat top pistons give 0.025 deck clearance at TDC?
Please Note: The above equations and rules apply only to four-cycle engines. The equations have been simplified for ease of understanding. Answers will be approximate but generally will be close enough for use as a guideline.
 

EFI SYSTEM FORMULAS
FORMULA FOR INJECTOR SIZE SELECTION

LBS/HR = ((BSFC ÷ # CYL'S) X HP) ÷ PEAK INJECTION DURATION

Example: What size injectors should you use for a Super Victor EFI 600 hp 350 cid Chevy?
Lbs/Hr = ((0.50 ÷ 8) x 600) ÷ 0.85
Lbs/Hr = 37.5 ÷ .85
Lbs/Hr = 44
 
FLOW RATE CHANGE BY PRESSURE REGULATOR CHANGE

F2 = (√P2 ÷ √P1) x F1

F2 = New flow rate (lbs/hour or cc/min)
F1 = Old flow rate (lbs/hr or cc/min)
P2 = New Pressure
P1 = Old Pressure

An adjustable fuel pressure regulator allows you to change the amount of fuel delivered per unit time from the injector. Any changes affect the fuel curve globally, so re-mapping the idle and light load conditions is usually necessary. The mass flow is proportional to the square root of the pressure ratio:
Example: You have a 28 Lb/hr (@45 psi) injector. How much will it flow at 60 psi?
F2 = (√60 ÷√45) x 28 Lbs/hr
F2 = (7.746 ÷ 6.708) x 28 Lbs/hr
F2 = 32.3 Lbs/hr

 
MAXIMUM HORSEPOWER SUPPORTED BY A GIVEN INJECTOR

HP = [(INJECTOR SIZE (LB/HR) X DUTY CYCLE) ÷ BSFC] X (# OF INJECTORS)

Example: How much power can be supported by eight 28 Lb/hr injectors?
HP = [(28 Lb/hr x 0.90) 0.50 Lb/HP hr] x 8
HP = 50.4 HP x 8
HP = 403
 
TO CONVERT CC/MIN TO LBS/HR

DIVIDE CC/MIN BY 10.5

Please Note: The above equations and rules apply only to four-cycle engines. The equations have been simplified for ease of understanding. Answers will be approximate but generally will be close enough for use as a guideline.
 

PRESSURE AND FLOW
PRESSURE CONVERSION FACTORS
  Kpa Atm In. Hg In. H2O PSI
1.0 Kpa= 1.0 .00987 .295 4.018 .145
1.0 Atm= 101.3 1.0 29.92 407.1 14.7
1.0 in Hg= 3.386 .03342 1.0 13.61 .491
1.0 in H20= .2489 .02456 .07349 1.0 .0361
1.0 PSI = 6.8948 .06805 2.036 27.7 1.0
Example: You have 15 in Hg (inches of Mercury) at idle. How much is this in Kpa?
Kpa = 3.386 x 15
Kpa = 50.8
 
FLOW BENCH CONVERSION FACTOR

CFM = CFM x √(28 ÷ P)

Typically flow bench values are given for a pressure drop of 28 in H2O. To convert flow figures from a different pressure drop to 28 in H2O use the formula above.
Example: You have flow figures of 152 cfm at 10 in H2O. What if the same head was flowed at 28 in H2O?
CFM = 152 x √(28÷10)
CFM = 254 cfm

Please Note: The above equations and rules apply only to four-cycle engines. The equations have been simplified for ease of understanding. Answers will be approximate but generally will be close enough for use as a guideline.

 

FUEL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION
Brake Specific Fuel Consumption is the ratio of fuel consumed (in lbs. per hour) to horsepower produced. This ratio is a direct indicator of how efficiently the engine converts fuel into power. Most factory gasoline type engines run approximately a .50 to .55 Brake Specific Fuel consumption (BSFC) range while a highly efficient normally aspirated race engine operates at approximately a .40-.45 BSFC.
  • Most common turbocharged or supercharged engine configurations run in the .55 to .60 BSFC range
  • For Methanol powered applications the BSFC is doubled (i.e. turbo/methanol: 1.10-1.20)

These factors should be considered when sizing & selecting injectors for your particular application.

LBS/HR = HP X BSFC

Generally BSFC = 0.50.
Example: How much fuel flow will you need to feed your new 440 hp E-Tec EFI crate engine?
Lbs/hr = 440 x 0.50
Lbs/hr = 220

GPH = LBS/HR ÷ 6.0

Example: What is the GPH for the 440 hp crate engine?
Lbs/hr = 220 ÷ 6
Gals/hr = 37

Please Note: The above equations and rules apply only to four-cycle engines. The equations have been simplified for ease of understanding. Answers will be approximate but generally will be close enough for use as a guideline.

 

CFM RULES

CFM and Carburetors:
Carburetors are rated by CFM (cubic feet per minute) capacity. 4V carburetors are rated at 1.5 inches (Hg) of pressure drop (manifold vacuum) and 2V carburetors at 3 inches (Hg). Rule: For maximum performance, select a carburetor that is rated higher than the engine CFM requirement. Use 110% to 130% higher on single-plane manifolds. Example: If the engine needs 590 CFM, select a carburetor rated in the range of 650 to 770 CFM for a single-plane manifold. A 750 would be right. An 850 probably would cause driveability problems at lower RPM. A 1050 probably would cause actual loss of HP below 4500 RPM. For dual-plane manifolds use 120% to 150% higher.

CFM and Manifolds:
Manifolds must be sized to match the application. Because manifolds are made for specific engines, select manifolds based on the RPM range.

CFM and Camshafts:
With the proper carburetor and manifold it is possible to select a cam that loses 5% to 15% of the potential HP. These losses come from the wrong lift and duration which try to create air flow that does not match the air flow characteristics of the carburetor, manifold, head and exhaust so volumetric efficiency is reduced. An increase in camshaft lobe duration of 10 degrees will move the HP peak up 500 RPM but watch out; it may lose too much HP at lower RPM.

CFM and Cylinder Heads:
Cylinder heads are usually the limiting component in the whole air flow chain. That is why installing only a large carburetor or a long cam in a stock engine does not work. When it is not possible to replace the cylinder heads because of cost, a better matching carburetor, manifold, cam and exhaust can increase HP of most stock engines by 10 to 15 points. To break 100% Volumetric Efficiency, however, better cylinder heads or OEM “HO” level engines are usually needed.

CFM and Exhaust:
An engine must exhaust burned gases before it can intake the next fresh charge. Cast iron, log style manifolds hamper the exhaust process. Tube style exhaust systems are preferred. But headers are often too big; especially for Performer and Performer RPM levels. Improving an engine’s Volumetric Efficiency depends on high exhaust gas velocity to scavenge the cylinder. This will not happen if the exhaust valve dumps into a big header pipe. On the newer computer controlled vehicles it is also important to ensure that all emissions control devices, and especially the O2 sensor, still work as intended.

CFM and Engine Control:
Spark timing must be matched to Volumetric Efficiency because VE indicates the quantity of charge in each cylinder on each stroke of the engine. Different engine families require distinctly different spark advance profiles. And even engines of equal CID but different CR require their own unique spark advance profiles. Rule: Expect 0.1% to 0.5% loss in Torque for each 1 degree error in spark timing advanced or retarded from best timing. Also, detonation will occur with spark advanced only 3 degrees to 5 degrees over best timing and detonation will cause 1% to 10% torque loss, immediately, and engine damage if allowed to persist.

 

E-FORCE BOOST MEASUREMENT
Installing A Boost Gauge Or Pressure Tranducer

1. The TMAP sensor mounted on top of the manifold at the rear of the driver's side, outputs a 0-5 volt signal through pins 1 & 2 (pin 1 is signal & pin 2 is signal return,) that can be converted to an absolute pressure reading using the below calibration curve. Use of this signal requires an ambient pressure correction for calculating boost pressure.

Voltage Pressure
0.62 2.70
0.80 3.69
1.09 5.70
1.40 7.69
1.71 9.70
2.17 12.70
2.46 14.70
2.70 16.21
2.94 17.70
3.25 19.71
3.55 21.70
3.84 23.71
4.15 25.70
4.46 27.70
4.76 29.70
2. The second option is to utilize the pressure port at the rear of the passenger side intake runner flange. Your supercharger has been pre-drilled and tapped for a 1/8" NPT fitting. There is currently a plug sealing the hole, which can be removed, and replaced with a fitting to adapt to your sensor.
CAUTION: Never cut into the vacuum lines leading to the fuel rail pressure sensor and bypass actuator, on the driver's side of the manifold, for the purpose of tapping in a boost gauge. Interruption of the vacuum signal to the fuel rail pressure sensor can affect the fuel pressure reading to the PCM, which can result in engine failure! Furthermore, this port reads pressure before the intercooler, and therefore is before the inherent intercooler pressure drop. Readings from this port will always be approx. 20% higher then what the engine actually sees.

If measured properly on an otherwise stock 4.6L Mustang GT, your boost readings, utilizing an electronic transducer or MAP sensor, on a dyno, should be comparable to this boost curve, shown below, collected from a recent dyno test here at Edelbrock. If you install a mechanical boost gauge in your vehicle, you will see a steady 5 PSI on the gauge during full throttle acceleration on the street.

RPM Boost
2600 5.092
3000 5.733
3500 5.541
3800 5.637
4000 5.733
4300 5.637
4500 5.701
4600 5.829
4700 5.765
4800 5.509
4900 5.701
5000 5.798
RPM Boost
5100 5.862
5200 6.085
5300 6.278
5400 6.278
5500 6.342
5600 6.502
5700 6.663
5800 6.950
5900 6.950
6000 7.272
6100 7.336
6200 7.559
 

E-FORCE TMAP INFORMATION FOR FORD & BOSCH SENSORS
If you are using a custom calibration for your GM based E-Force application you will need the following TMAP information in order for the Manifold Absolute Pressure and Intake Air Temperature parameters to read correctly.

To help determine which sensor you have you can look at the serial number.

If your superchargers serial number is between 1 and 1611 your system will have the Ford TMAP, unless you have a Z06, all Z06 applications use the Bosch TMAP regardless of what the serial number is. The Ford TMAP will be attached to the supercharger housing with 2 bolts.

If your superchargers serial number is 1612 or greater your system will have the Bosch TMAP. The Bosch TMAP will be attached to the supercharger housing with 1 bolt.

Ford TMAP Sensor Information
For E-Force Superchargers with Serial number 0 - 1611 (other than Z06, all Z06 applications use the Bosch TMAP)
NOTE: If you have a 2005 LS2 the offset cannot be below 0, so just use 0 and it will be fairly close.
MAP Sensor Linear: 223.43 kpa
MAP Sensor Offset: -7.88 kpa
IAT Sensor Curve
Resistance Temperature C°
563 150
715 140
918 130
1191 120
1564 110
2080 100
2804 90
3273 85
3837 80
4515 75
5337 70
6335 65
7556 60
9056 55
10908 50
13216 45
16092 40
19696 35
24239 30
30000 25
37352 20
46797 15
59016 10
74940 5
95851 0
123485 -5
160313 -10
209816 -15
276959 -20
368896 -25
496051 -30
673787 -35
925021 -40
IAT Sensor Curve 2
Resistance Temperature F°
563 302
715 284
918 266
1191 248
1564 230
2080 212
2804 194
3273 185
3837 176
4515 167
5337 158
6335 149
7556 140
9056 131
10908 122
13216 113
16092 104
19696 95
24239 86
30000 77
37352 68
46797 59
59016 50
74940 41
95851 32
123485 23
160313 14
209816 5
276959 -4
368896 -13
496051 -22
673787 -31
925021 -40
Bosch TMAP sensor information
For all Z06 applications and GM E-Force Superchargers with Serial number 1612 and greater
NOTE: If you have a 2005 LS2 it will limit the Linear to 255.9 and the offset can't be below 0 so just use those values and it will be fairly close.
MAP Sensor Linear: 268.9 kpa
MAP Sensor Offset: -1.65 kpa
NOTE: The stock IAT values should be fairly close, if they are not you can use the values below.
IAT Sensor Curve
Resistance Temperature C°
58 150
72 140
90 130
113 120
144 110
186 100
243 90
321 80
431 70
587 60
813 50
1148 40
1653 30
2000 25
2433 20
3663 10
5652 0
8969 -10
14700 -20
24710 -30
43320 -40
43321 -40
43322 -40
43323 -40
43324 -40
43325 -40
43326 -40
43327 -40
43328 -40
43329 -40
43330 -40
43331 -40
43332 -40
IAT Sensor Curve 2
Resistance Temperature F°
47 302
101 284
133 266
178 248
980 230
1148 212
1349 194
1592 185
1884 176
2144 167
2445 158
2795 149
3202 140
3511 131
3678 122
3854 113
4039 104
4235 95
4441 86
4659 77
4888 68
5131 59
5387 50
5658 41
6247 32
6905 23
7643 14
8470 5
9906 -4
12261 -13
16120 -22
28583 -31
100866 -40
 

E-FORCE THROTTLE BODY COMPARISON

Edelbrock E-Force (85mm) vs. Ford Mustang GT twin (55mm) and GT 500 twin (62mm)

Stock twin 55mm bore with 10mm shaft = 5.66 sq. in. total area

GT500 twin 60mm bore with 10mm shaft = 6.91 sq. in. total area

Edelbrock single 85mm bore with 8.8mm shaft = 7.64 sq. In. total area

In addition, area being equal, a single bore will always flow better than a twin bore because there is less bounding surface area to interrupt the flow. Also, both the stock GT throttle body and the GT500 throttle body have an as cast surface leading into the bores, where the Edelbrock unit is machined through for less wall friction. Last, the inlet is port matched to the throttle body for a perfect matching transition.